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Martes, 26 de Mayo de 2020

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Enero 2017 - Diciembre 2018 - Unión Europea Criminal, Niño, Políticas públicas, Protección

Criminal proceedings are daunting for all. However, children are more likely to be overwhelmed by the experience and less likely to participate effectively, seriously undermining their ability to receive a fair trial. In its Impact Assessment on a proposal for measures on special safeguards for children and vulnerable adults suspected or accused in criminal proceedings (hereafter, the Impact Assessment), the European Commission (hereafter, the Commission) noted that children “face a higher risk of discrimination or deprivation of their fundamental rights due to their lack of knowledge, maturity or mental and physical disabilities”.

Despite international and regional standards in this area, the Impact Assessment found that the fair trial rights of 1 million children facing criminal proceedings in the EU each year are not sufficiently guaranteed. A 2014 Commission study examined legislation and policy governing children’s involvement in criminal proceedings across the EU, highlighting the lack of key safeguards for child suspects and defendants in many countries. These include the failure to provide information in a manner specifically adapted to the child’s needs; insufficient protection from lengthy pre-trial detention; limitations on the right to be heard; and the failure to audio-visually record interviews with children.

The European Commission also identified the lack of mandatory specialist training for defence lawyers representing children as a key deficiency in many Member States, including Hungary and Romania. Defence lawyers lack interdisciplinary training (involving, for example, juvenile justice experts -lawyers, judges, prosecutors, NGOs and academics-, social workers and child psychologists) on (a) the international and regional standards which can be used to ensure children enjoy their right to a fair trial, (b) the avenues available for enforcing those standards and (c) the specific skills required to ensure that child suspects and defendants can effectively participate in criminal proceedings. Furthermore, there is an absence of regional networking opportunities through which defence lawyers representing children can exchange knowledge and develop strategic regional responses to systemic challenges facing their clients.

The EU Directive on procedural safeguards for children suspected or accused in criminal proceedings, which may reach its transposition deadline during the project timeframe, and other regional and international standards, including the Council of Europe's child-friendly justice guidelines and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, have the potential to strengthen the safeguards available for child suspects and defendants in criminal proceedings, but only if legal professionals are fully equipped to use them in their day-to-day practice.

MAIN ACTIVITIES

Regional conference: organisation of a regional conference to ensure that the development of the two main outputs of the project, the toolkit and the training programme, are informed by (a) knowledge of the challenges faced by both child suspects and defendants in criminal proceedings and the lawyers who represent them and (b) interdisciplinary expertise on the skills required by defence lawyers when representing children. The conference will provide the opportunity for a wide range of experts (including juvenile justice experts; lawyers, judges, prosecutors, NGOs and academics, as well as social workers and child psychologists) to share examples of good practice and inform the content of the toolkit and training programme. A conference report will be produced as a record of the expert input collaged during the conference.

Toolkit and training programme: the training materials, with both in-person and online components, can be used in a sustainable and replicable way to train lawyers across the EU in the knowledge and skills required effectively to represent child suspects and defendants in criminal proceedings. They are based on the perceptions of EU defence practitioners regarding the challenges faced by child suspects and defendants in criminal proceedings (including case examples), the challenges which lawyers face in providing effective legal presentation to child suspects and defendants, and the current training opportunities available to them. As well as this, the materials are based on research about existing analysis on the experience of child suspects and defendants in criminal proceedings, the perspectives of children on their experiences in criminal proceedings, and existing practice on the training of lawyers in this area.

- Production of the toolkit: to set out relevant international and regional standards, including a guide to the EU Directive, guidance on the practical application of those standards, practical checklists for defence lawyers to use when representing child suspects and defendants, and information on how to access international and regional avenues of redress.

- Production of the in-person training programme: including an agenda, sample slides, case studies, group exercises and assessments are used during the two-day training programme for defence lawyers,  including guidance for training providers on effective marketing of the programme, adaptation of the programme to the specific needs in their jurisdiction, and practical tips for the delivery of the programme.

- Production of the online training programme: featuring the materials produced for the in-person trainings, as well as short videos from expert trainers.

Regional training course: the two-day regional training course introduces bar associations from all 28 Member States to the project training materials and encourages them to deliver similar training programmes in their own jurisdictions. Adopting a train-the-trainer model, the two-day course demonstrates to participants how to use and tailor the training materials for future training opportunities. A regional training report will identify any problems with the training materials which can be addressed through further revision, and will develop practical tips on delivering training to be included in the final version of the training materials.

National training courses: country-specific training to 80 lawyers, 40 lawyers in each of Hungary and Romania, will increase their knowledge of relevant international and regional standards and improve their practical skills in order to ensure the effective participation of child suspects and defendants. Country-specific needs will have been identified through research on the challenges faced by child suspects and defendants in criminal proceedings and current approaches to the training of defence lawyers on this area of practice, as well as on lawyers' perception on their training needs. The training materials will be adapted to the specific needs in Hungary and Romania, both of which are jurisdictions where defence lawyers currently receive limited training on how to represent effectively child suspects and defendants. A short national training report will be produced on each national training course, identifying any problems with the training materials and setting out practical tips on development and delivery of country-specific training programmes for inclusion in the final version of the training materials.

Click here to go to the project's web section on the IJJO website.

Julio 2016 - Junio 2018 - Internacional Asistencia, Formación, Niño, Prevención, Violencia

Como muestra la agenda europea, el problema de la radicalización y de la lucha contra el extremismo violento se ha convertido en una prioridad cada vez mayor para todos los Estados miembros de la Unión Europea (UE). La radicalización de los ciudadanos de la UE, que podrían llegar a partir para luchar en organizaciones terroristas o de violencia extrema como el Estado Islámico, supone una auténtica amenaza de seguridad para la Unión Europea, sus Estados Miembros y los países vecinos.

El ritmo acelerado de este fenómeno significa que las medidas represivas ya no son suficientes y que es necesario adoptar una nueva estrategia basada en la prevención.

El proyecto “La prevención de la radicalización juvenil: Promover el uso de alternativas a la privación de libertad mediante la formación judicial” abordará el problema de la radicalización juvenil durante la privación de libertad, dentro y fuera del sistema penitenciario, mediante el intercambio de conocimientos y de buenas prácticas entre los profesionales judiciales y los agentes de varios Estados Miembros de la UE (EMUE), especialmente aquellos que recurren a una colaboración intersectorial.

Se basa en la hipótesis de que los esfuerzos para promover la desvinculación de la violencia y el extremismo serán más eficaces si se llevan a cabo sobre la base de estructuras ya existentes para la prevención del crimen y la rehabilitación.

Por lo tanto, las actividades propuestas en este proyecto, y especialmente el programa de formación, se dirigirán prioritariamente a los magistrados y al personal de justicia: jueces, fiscales y oficiales de los tribunales; así como otros profesionales de la ley y actores implicados en el sistema de justicia: abogados, agentes de libertad condicional, educadores, mediadores y legisladores, considerado el grupo más susceptible de beneficiarse de, y de implementar, los conocimientos y buenas prácticas compartidos y aprendidos mediante el proyecto.

El proyecto se centrará en los siguientes tres temas:

  • La prevención de la radicalización en las medidas de privación de libertad.
  • Prevención y reinserción terciarias.
  • Los procesos de desradicalización mediante alternativas a la privación de libertad, incluyendo enfoques basados en la comunidad y en la familia.

 

Actividades principales

  • Visión de conjunto de la situación de la radicalización entre los jóvenes en Europa y el uso de las alternativas a la privación de libertad en los Estados miembros de la UE: proporcionando una investigación profunda sobre la situación de la radicalización entre los jóvenes y el uso de alternativas a la privación de libertad en los 28 Estados miembros. Esta investigación la llevan a cabo dos consultores externos, especialistas en radicalización y formación judicial, que también se ocupan del paquete de formación. Un grupo de 4 expertos también contribuye a este diagnóstico y análisis compartiendo su conocimiento y experiencia con el fin de mejorar el contenido del paquete de formación. Además, cada socio participa en la investigación proporcionando un informe nacional sobre la situación de la radicalización y el uso de alternativas a la privación de libertad en su país.
  • Formación nacional orientada a prácticas e intercambio de conocimientos: intercambiando políticas, aprendiendo de las buenas prácticas y formando a los formadores en lo relativo a la prevención de la radicalización y al uso de alternativas a la privación de libertad en los países socios. Esta actividad, en la que todos los socios participarán, consiste en 3 reuniones nacionales organizadas en Alemania, Bélgica y España; cada una de ellas se centra en un tema específico y está compuesta de un taller nacional para intercambiar buenas prácticas, de una visita de estudio y de una sesión de formación dirigida por los dos consultores externos que han producido el paquete de formación.
  • Manual de formación: producción del paquete de capacitación, y su posterior traducción a las lenguas nacionales. El manual de formación está compuesto de 5 volúmenes: 1. Política europea y marco teórico; 2. Prevención de la radicalización en la privación de libertad; 3. Intervención basada en la comunidad y en la familia; 4. Experiencias de prevención terciaria; 5. Informes nacionales y buenas prácticas destacadas. Está dirigido a los socios y a los actores nacionales interesados para permitir su diseminación a nivel nacional en los países socios mediante talleres.
  • Curso de formación online: producción de una actividad de autoaprendizaje basada en el manual de formación, y alojada en la plataforma de e-learning del OIJJ en cada una de las lenguas de los socios, que estará abierta a los interesados de cada país socio.
  • Difusión del conocimiento y conferencia final: las recomendaciones sobre la prevención de la radicalización y el uso de alternativas a la privación de la libertad para jóvenes se plasmarán en un informe de políticas, mientras que los resultados del proyecto se presentarán en una conferencia final en París, que unirá a todos los socios del proyecto y del Consejo Europeo de Justicia Juvenil (especialmente de las secciones judiciales y de las administraciones públicas).

 

Haga clic aquí para ir a la sección web del proyecto.

Diciembre 2016 - Mayo 2018 - Unión Europea Adolescente, Enfermedad, Investigación, Justicia, Juvenil, Salud, Trastornos

The project ‘FACT FOR MINORS – Fostering Alternative Care for Troubled Minors’ intends to address children with psychological, psychiatric or personality disorders, hosted by alternative care communities (or socio-educational communities) as a consequence of penal measures.

Research interests in mental health problems in juvenile justice have grown over the past years, as several studies throughout the world have shown that mental disorders are highly prevalent among children under penal measures. This represents a significant problem, even more so if the special needs of these children remain unidentified and unaddressed, with significant long-term effects on their life chances and on their physical and mental health and well-being.

The issues raised in European justice systems by children serving a penal measure in alternative care communities that show evidence of psychological, psychiatric or personality disorders, have been poorly addressed. In general, the dilemma posed by the intervention with children in the juvenile justice with such disorders lies in the fact that an inadequate therapeutic response may lead to chronical psychiatric disorders, while an inadequate socio-educational response may result in further marginalisation.

The main issue is that these children need adequate clinical attention and present clinical dilemmas, which is why they are often a real challenge for the social workers in alternative care communities. The response to this challenge cannot lay in parallel interventions by the juvenile justice and the health sectors; instead, it lays in a proper integration of the interventions of the two agencies and of the different professionals that work for or with these children. Indeed, managing children with psychological, psychiatric or personality disorders in alternative care communities requires a holistic, multidisciplinary and multiagency approach, focused on prevention, evaluation, treatment (including emergency treatment), and recovery, considering risk evaluation of clinical and legal relapse. Such approach is therefore both therapeutic and socio-educational.

In this context, this project intends to reinforce the capacity of alternative care communities in five European Union (EU) countries -Finland, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain- to adequately support and respond to the specific needs of the children with psychiatric disorders under penal measures.

Such aim will be pursued by a two-fold action that will seek to:

 Strengthen the capacity of, and the coordination between, all professionals working with and for children in alternative care to address the needs of children with psychiatric disorders; and

 Boost interagency cooperation, in particular on issues related to the alternative care of minors under penal measures and with psychiatric disorders.

MAIN ACTIVITIES

 Successful intervention methods to address the needs of children with mental health disorders in alternative care will be identified, adapted and tested. The activities in this sense are the collection of statistic and qualitative data, where available, as well as the review of the existing national literature, practices and legal framework on alternative care communities and minors with psychological or personality disorders.

 Capacity building with professionals working with or for children in alternative care in 5 partner countries and at European level through an e-learning platform. First, a needs assessment of the identified setting for the capacity-building activities is performed; second, for the engagement of the professionals for the capacity building, there is a presentation of the project aims, the identification of the professionals’ needs and institutional strengths, and the development of a capacity-building methodology. This methodology will be tested with the partners’ supervision, and followed by several national, transnational and experts meetings and national reports.

 Strengthening of multi-agency and multi-disciplinary cooperation in the area of child protection in the 5 partner countries also through finalization of formal commitments. National multi-agency meetings will be held to contribute to this end.

 Development of outputs aimed at ensuring maximum impact, visibility and sustainability of the project results and in particular of the capacity building methodology developed. The outputs will be the European guidelines for the alternative care of children with special needs and the European Handbook for professionals working with children in alternative care. A website of the project will also be set up, and the project outputs’ impact will be verified at the national level by the corresponding Ministries.

 Communication and dissemination events to present project resulst and raise awareness on the rights of children in alternative care. The dissemination events will be held at the national level by the corresponding Ministries, and a final conference will be organised in Brussels. Finally, all partners will contribute to the dissemination of the project’s results through social media and events.

Click here to go to the project's web section on the IJJO website.

Junio 2015 - Junio 2017 - Europa Adolescente, Crimen, Delincuencia, Derecho, Detención, Legislación, Libertad, Medidas

The European Council has noted that “excessively long periods of pre-trial detention are detrimental for the individual, can prejudice judicial cooperation between the member states and do not represent the values for which the European Union stands”, considering that pre-trial detention offers important justice safeguards while it is intended as an exceptional measure. Over-use of this measure is ruining lives and using a large amount of European Union countries’ resources.

There is a clear need for guaranteeing minimum conditions when a minor is arrested before trial. Despite this, there are no common rules for all Member States in relation to procedures and conditions of such preventive detention and pre-trial detention, regardless of the interest of United Nations and European Union Institutions.

Therefore, in order to comply with the minimum rules, the MIPREDET project aims to explore the situation in different countries in Europe, in order to recommend measures to be applied to fulfil the identified needs and assess how the new proposal for a Directive of The European Parliament and of the Council on procedural safeguards for children suspected or accused in criminal proceedings is being applied in practice. The target groups of the project are: organisations related to juvenile justice; experts (researchers, university professors); custodial centre staff; justice practitioners (judges, attorneys, lawyers); policy makers; and law enforcement authorities.

The project is scheduled to last 24 months. It started in June 2015 and will end in June 2017.

For more information, click here.

Marzo 2015 - Febrero 2017 - Europa Buenas prácticas, Formación, Justicia, Juvenil, Reforma, Sistemas

The varying levels of implementation of international standards concerning children in conflict with the law have become a problem inherent in the field of Juvenile Justice, due to various reasons, with a lack of specific training in Juvenile Justice at both the EU and the local level being key. Current training methods in how Juvenile Justice stakeholders communicate with children in conflict with the law is somewhat lacking.

Therefore, the project ‘Improving Juvenile Justice Systems in Europe: Training for Professionals’, elaborated by the International Juvenile Justice Observatory (IJJO), intends to provide information, knowledge and training to juvenile justice national authorities and staff working with juvenile offenders at a European level, in order to promote a better implementation of international standards concerning children in conflict with the law. It involves the IJJO think tank and formal network: the European Council of Juvenile Justice.

The project focuses on improving juvenile justice national systems and exchanging promising practices concerning juvenile offenders subject to sanctions or measures. It consists of training modules on the creation on child-friendly justice and follows a two part approach:

Training of trainers (national Juvenile Justice stakeholders) and,

National interdisciplinary workshops on child-friendly justice (for defender, social, healthcare professionals, penitentiary staff, etc).

The training of trainers focuses on capacity building for juvenile justice stakeholders and the content of national workshops will follow the recommendations of the IJJO White Paper ‘Save Money, Protect Society and Realise Youth Potential - Improving Youth Justice Systems during a Time of Economic Crisis’, in particular how and why assess the need of children in conflict with the law deprived of liberty, with a special interest in promoting alternative measures and restorative approaches.

The accent is given to the importance of developing individualised programs for children in conflict with the law, and developing specific knowledge for professionals concerning children rights, communication with children and preparation to the release.

For more information, click here.

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